Tear gasformally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator from the Latin lacrimameaning " tear "sometimes colloquially known as mace[NB 1] is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and blindness. In the eye, it stimulates the nerves of the lacrimal gland to produce tears. Lachrymatory agents are commonly used for riot control. The chemical weapon is used against civilian population during relatively peaceful times; but not against enemy soldiers during war times as using tear gas is prohibited by various international treaties.
Tear "gas" generally consists of aerosolized solid or liquid compounds bromoacetone or xylyl bromidenot gas. It causes crying, sneezing, coughing, difficulty breathing, pain in the eyes, and temporary blindness.
With CS gassymptoms of irritation typically appear after 20 to 60 seconds of exposure  and commonly resolve within 30 minutes of leaving or being removed from the area. The California Poison Control System analyzed 3, reports of pepper spray injuries between and The most severe injuries occurred in law enforcement training, intentionally incapacitating people, and law enforcement whether of individuals or crowd control.
As with all non-lethal or less-lethal weapons, there is some risk of serious permanent injury or death when tear gas is used.
While the medical consequences of the gases themselves are typically limited to minor skin inflammationdelayed complications are also possible. People with pre-existing respiratory conditions such as asthma are particularly at risk. They are likely to need medical attention  and may sometimes require hospitalization or even ventilation support.
Reports of expired tear gas canisters picked up by protesters in Egypt led to theories that it could be more toxic, but Steve Wright of Leeds Metropolitan University said if enough time has elapsed that the chemicals have broken down inside the can, then it makes the canister less effective.
Use of tear gas in warfare, as with all other chemical weaponsis prohibited by various international treaties [NB 2] that most states have signed. Police and private self-defense use is not banned in the same manner. Armed forces can legally use tear gas for drills practicing with gas masks and for riot control. Tear gas exposure is a standard element of military training programs, typically as a means of improving trainees' tolerance to tear gas and encouraging confidence Back Like Me (Parts I & II) - American Tears - Tear Gas the ability of their issued protective equipment to prevent chemical weapons exposure.
Certain lachrymatory agents, most notably tear gas, are often used by police to force compliance. The self-defense weapon form of mace is based on P.Y.T. (Pretty Young Thing) - Michael Jackson - Thriller spray which comes in small spray cans. Versions including CS are manufactured for police use. CS is the most widely used.
CN has the most recorded toxicity. Typical manufacturer warnings on tear gas cartridges state "Danger: Do not fire directly at person s. Severe injury or death may result. Israeli soldiers have been documented by B'Tselem firing tear gas canisters Back Like Me (Parts I & II) - American Tears - Tear Gas activists, some of which resulted in fatalities, though the Israel Defense Forces insist that they maintain a strict policy of only indirect firing.
However, tear gas guns do not have a manual setting to adjust the range of fire. The only way to adjust the projectile's range is to aim towards the ground at the correct angle. Incorrect aim will send the Back Like Me (Parts I & II) - American Tears - Tear Gas away from the targets, causing risk for non-targets instead. Also in Iraq where the Iraqi government used expired tear gas and sincethe Iraq security have used it and killed over protesters in Red October Tear gas fired to disperse protesters outside government headquarters during Hong Kong Protests on 28 September Tear gas being used against opposition protesters during the Venezuelan protests.
A protester uses a sling to send a tear gas grenade back towards Israeli soldiers during a Palestinian weekly protest in Ni'linJuly A variety of protective equipment may be used, including gas masks and respirators. In riot control situations, protesters sometimes use equipment aside from simple rags or clothing over the mouth such as swimming goggles and adapted water bottles. It has been suggested that "The use of masks that filter solid particles is effective, if and only if, the membrane manages to catch particles with sizes smaller than 60 microns ".
During Back Like Me (Parts I & II) - American Tears - Tear Gas Hong Kong protests, frontline protesters have become adept at extinguishing tear gas: they have formed special teams that spring into action as soon as it is fired.
These individuals generally Walk Through This World - Barbara Jones / G.G. All Stars* - Walk Through This World / Part Two Dub protective clothing, including heat-proof gloves, or cover their arms and legs Stairway To The Stars - Morris Lane - Tenor Saxsation cling film to prevent the painful skin irritation.
Canisters are sometimes picked up and lobbed back at police or extinguished straight away with water, or neutralised using objects such as traffic cones. They share information about models of 3M respirator filters which have been found to be most effective against tear gas, and where those models could be purchased. Other volunteers carry saline solutions to rinse the eyes of those affected.
There is no specific antidote to common tear gases. Once a person has been exposed, there are a variety of methods to remove as much chemical possible and relieve symptoms. Bathing and washing the body vigorously with soap and water can remove particles that adhere to the skin. Clothes, shoes and accessories that come into contact with vapors must be washed well since all untreated particles can remain active for up to a week.
Anticholinergics can work like some antihistamines as they reduce lacrymation and decrease salivation, acting as an antisialagogueand for overall nose discomfort as they are used to treat allergic reactions in the nose e.
Oral analgesics may help relieve eye pain. Vinegar, petroleum jelly, milk and lemon juice solutions have also been used by activists. In particular, vinegar itself can burn the eyes and prolonged inhalation can also irritate the airways. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about lachrymatory agents. For the album by The Jacka, see Tear Gas album. Non-lethal chemical weapon. Play media.
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