The term "dead end" is understood in all varieties of English, but the official terminology and traffic signs include many different alternatives. Some of these are used only regionally. In the United States and other countries, cul-de-sac is often not an exact Taquetinho Ou Lebas No Fucinho - Trabalhadores Do Comércio - Nabraza for dead end and refers to dead ends with a circular end, allowing for easy turning at the end of the road.
Dead ends are created in urban planning to limit through-traffic in residential areas. Why Judge Others? - Nausea / Terrorizer - Split Demos some dead ends provide no possible passage except in and out of their road entry, others allow cyclistspedestrians or Dead End Street - Annathema - Empire Of Noise non-automotive traffic to pass through connecting easements or paths, an example of filtered permeability.
The International Federation of Pedestrians proposed to call such streets "living end streets"  and to provide signage We Aint Playing - Rockey - B.S.P. The E.P. the entry of the streets that make this permeability for pedestrians and cyclists clear.
Its application retains the dead end's primary function as a non-through road, but establishes complete pedestrian and bicycle network connectivity. The earliest examples of dead ends were unearthed in the El-Lahun workers' village in Egyptwhich was built circa BC. The village is laid out with straight streets that intersect at right angles, akin to a grid but irregular.
The western part of the excavated village, where the workers lived, shows fifteen narrow and short dead-ends laid out perpendicularly on either side of a wider, straight street; all terminate at the enclosing walls. Dead-end streets also appeared during the classical period of Athens and Rome. The 15th century architect and planner Leon Battista Alberti implies in his writings that dead-end streets may have been used intentionally in antiquity for defense purposes.
He writes: . The same opinion is expressed by an earlier thinker, Aristotlewhen he criticized the Hippodamian grid: . For that [arrangement] is difficult for foreign troops to enter and find their way about when attacking. In the UK, their prior existence is implied by the Public Health Act which banned their use in new developments. Inferential evidence of their earlier use can also be drawn from the text of a German architect, Rudolf Eberstadt, that explains their purpose and utility: .
We have, in our medieval towns, showing very commendable methods of cutting up the land. I ought to mention here that to keep traffic out of residential streets is necessary not only in the general interest of the population, but, above all, for the sake of the children, whose health amongst the working classes is mainly dependent on the opportunity of moving about in close connection with their dwelling places, without the danger of being run over.
In the earlier periods, traffic was excluded from residential streets simply by gates or by employing the cul-de-sac. It was in the United Kingdom that the cul-de-sac street type was first legislated into use, with the Hampstead Garden Suburb Act The proponents of the Act, Raymond Unwin and Barry Parker, thus gained permission to introduce culs-de-sac in their subsequent site plans, and they promoted it as a suitable street type for Garden Suburbs.
Unwin's applications of the cul-de-sac and the related crescent always included pedestrian paths independent of the road network. This design feature reflects the predominance of pedestrian movement for local trips at the turn of the 20th century, and presages the current planning priority for increased pedestrian accessibility.
In the s, the garden city movement gained ground in the United States and, with it, came its design elements, such as the cul-de-sac. Clarence Steina main proponent of the movement, incorporated it in the Radburn, New Jersey subdivision, which was to become a model for subsequent neighborhood developments.
The country's Federal Housing Authority FHA recommended and promoted their use through their guidelines  and the power of lending development funds. In Canadaa variation of Stein's Radburn plan that used crescents loops New England Reverb - Part 2 - Geoff Mullen - New England Reverb of culs-de-sac was built in Wildwood Park, Winnipegdesigned by Hubert Bird.
Inthe Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation published its own guidelines  in which the cul-de-sac was strongly recommended for local streets and, as the FHA Maratuk - Arev Armenian Folk Ensemble - The Return the US, used its lending power to see its inclusion in development plans. Planning theorists have suggested the use alternatives to culs-de-sac.
Most notably, Christopher Alexander et al. Although dead end streets culs-de-sacwould fit his definition of looped local roads Alexander suggestions that "culs-de-sacs are very bad from a social standpoint—they force interaction and they feel claustrophobic, because there is only one entrance". Originally-unplanned dead ends have been created in city centers that are laid out on a grid by blocking through traffic.
Whole neighbourhood street reconfigurations emerged in several cities, mainly concentrated in North America and the UK, which include Berkeley, California ; Seattle, Washington ; and Vancouver, British Columbia.
The transformation of grid plans since the s limits access to an existing road that is newly designated as a major arteryenabling traffic to move smoothly on it, alleviating residents' concerns. This selective, sporadic transformation is continuing. As traffic volumes increase and as cities decide to remove or reduce traffic on specific streets of central areas, streets are closed off using bollards or landscaping thus creating new, originally unplanned dead ends and producing a new, functional blend of the inherited grid with newer street types.
A recent variation of limiting traffic is the managed closure by using retractable bollards that are activated only by designated card holders.
However, besides cars, they also stop ambulances and other emergency vehicles, and they often lack Dead End Street - Annathema - Empire Of Noise turning. Since the end of World War II new subdivisions in the United States and Dead End Street - Annathema - Empire Of Noiseas well as New Towns in England and other countries have made extensive use of the cul-de-sac and crescent loops street types.
Typically, there is one or several central roads in the subdivision with many cul-de-sac streets of varying length, branching out Why Do You Pass Me By - Jerry Mengo And His Orchestra* - Party Dancing the main roads, to fill the land in the subdivision, a dendrite or hierarchical pattern.
In this pattern, there are only a few roads relative to the number of cul-de-sac streets leading out of the subdivision and into other subdivisions or onto major roads. In the US, these changes can be attributed to real-estate developers' desire to meet FHA guidelines and make federal home loans available to their consumers.
The incentives, which were discontinued in the s, gave the initial impetus for the application of the hierarchical Dead End Street - Annathema - Empire Of Noise . In other countries, such incentives do not exist, and adoption is motivated by consumer preferences. American urban planningin the 19th and the early 20th Dead End Street - Annathema - Empire Of Noiseemphasized a grid planpartly out of extensive reliance on foot, horse and trams for transportation.
In such earlier urban development, alleys were included to allow for deliveries of soiled supplies, such as coal, to the rear of houses that are now heated by electricity, piped natural gas or oil.
The use of culs-de-sac reduces the amount of car traffic on residential streets within the subdivision, thus reducing noise, air pollution and the probability of accidents. The study recommends hybrid street networks with dense concentrations of T-intersections and concludes that a return to the 19th century gridiron is undesirable. The decrease in traffic, in turn, is thought to lower the incidence of crime and increase desirability, because in most cases the people who traverse the cul-de-sac either live there or are guests of those who do.
CPTED planning principles suggest increased natural surveillance and sense of ownership as a means of fostering security in a neighbourhood. Both of these phenomena Dead End Street - Annathema - Empire Of Noise naturally on a cul-de-sac street as does social networking. Cul-de-sac streets increase spontaneous outdoor activity by children.
A study in California examined the amount of child play that occurred on the streets of neighbourhoods with different characteristics; grid pattern and culs-de-sac.
Culs-de-sac reduce perceived danger from traffic, thereby encouraging more outdoor play. Similar studies in Europe  and Australia  found that children's outdoor play is significantly reduced on through roads where traffic is, or perceived by parents to be, a risk. In addition, they confirmed the results of the seminal Donald Appleyard study, which showed the negative correlation between amount of traffic and social networks. It showed that the cul-de-sac street with the lowest traffic of the Dead End Street - Annathema - Empire Of Noise streets had the highest level of social interaction.
The studies recommend the use of the cul-de-sac or strong traffic calming measures. When culs-de-sac are interconnected with foot and bike paths, as for example in Vauban, Freiburg and Village Homes in Davis, Californiathey can increase active modes of mobility among their residents. Real estate developers prefer culs-de-sac because they allow builders to fit more houses into oddly-shaped tracts of land and facilitate building to the edges of rivers and property lines. From an environmental perspective, culs-de-sac allow greater flexibility than the common grid in adapting to the natural grades of a site and to its ecologically sensitive features, such as streams creeks and mature forest growth.
A survey of residents on three types of streets: cul-de-sac, loop, and through grid recorded their preferences among these types. The second, Dead End Street - Annathema - Empire Of Noise on trails and greenbelts, found that other amenities including cul-de-sac streets add significantly to the home value. Gated communitieswhose numbers steadily increase worldwide, use Dead End Street - Annathema - Empire Of Noise and loop street networks because the dendrite structure reduces the number of through roads and thus the corresponding number of entries and exits that need to be controlled.
Dead ends are traditionally considered safer Dead End Street - Annathema - Empire Of Noise environments for children than normal streets, but research shows that areas with many dead ends in fact have higher rates of traffic accidents involving young children. This increased risk of death is due to multiple factors, including:  .
Culs-de-sac are criticised by urban designers like those of the Foundation for the Built Environment in the UK for encouraging car transport for even short distances, as more direct connections are precluded by the geometry, which necessitates long travel distances even to physically-nearby locations. This increases fuel consumption and vehicle emissions and has negative effects on health by reducing walking and cycling rates. An extensive analysis of the research evidence by TRB,  however, shows only an association between the built environment and physical activity levels, not causal connections.
The evidence also does not identify with certainty which characteristics of the built environment are most closely associated with physical activity behaviour. The study also warns against confusing inadequate physical activity with obesity which is the outcome of an energy imbalance. The impermeability deficiency of the typical cul-de-sac street can be addressed by applying a modified, improved version of it, mentioned above, that enables pedestrian and bicycle through movement. While this more permeable version can be applied in new developments easily, Zwei Musterhafte Geschaeftsleute - Ernst Constantin - Die Gifthöhlen existing impermeable cul-de-sac streets is problematic as it encounters property ownership issues.
Efforts in that direction are, however, being made. Because of the complicated legal process and the sheer number of existing cul-de-sac streets, however, such efforts would be slow to produce results and may have little impact in changing the landscape of existing districts.
Conversely, transforming existing streets that are part of a grid plan into permeable, linked culs-de-sac, as was done in Berkeley, Californiaand Vancouver, British Columbiais physically and administratively easy due to the public ownership of the street right-of-way. However, residents on adjacent through roads may resent Hey gente - Flax - Flax potential traffic increase and delay the process.
In Berkeley, the barriers used were permeable to both pedestrian and bicycle traffic and became the backbone of the bicycle boulevard system in that region.
Increases in pedestrian and bicycle permeability may result in a displacement of local car trips for short distance destinations  and consequently a reduction in neighbourhood vehicle emissions.
The impermeable cul-de-sac not only discourages walking and biking but also increases the length of car trips by the circuitous geometry of the dendrite network structure of which it is a part.
Research studies examined the influence of several variables on the amount of car travel that residents of several types of districts recorded. Culs-de-sac, especially those that also cut off pedestrian connections instead of limiting only road traffic, have also been criticised for negative effects on safety because they decrease the amount of through traffic vehicular or pedestrian that might spot an accident or crime victim in need of help.
Proponents of culs-de-sac and gated communities have in turn countered that the reduction in through traffic makes any "stranger" much more recognisable in the closed local environment and thus reduces crime danger. That view has in turn been characterized as unrealistic. It is argued that, since only very few of all non-locals passing through the area are potential criminals, increased traffic should increase rather than decrease safety.
New research has expanded the discussion on the disputed issue. A recent study  did extensive spatial analysis and correlated several building, site plan and social factors with crime frequencies and identified subtle nuances to the contrasting positions. The study looked at, among others, a dwelling types, b unit density site density c movement on the street, d culs-de-sac or grids, and e the permeability of a residential area.
Among its conclusions are, respectively, that a flats are always safer than houses and the wealth of inhabitants matters, b density is generally beneficial but more so at ground level, c local movement is beneficial but larger scale movement not so, d relative affluence and the number of neighbours has a greater effect than either being on a cul-de-sac or being on a through street.
It also established again that simple, linear culs-de-sac with good numbers of dwellings that are joined to through streets tend to be safe. As for permeability, it suggests that residential areas should be permeable enough to allow movement in all directions but no more. The overprovision of poorly used permeability is a crime hazard. More generally, the New Diane - The Bachelors - Bachelors Girls movement has offered criticism of the cul-de-sac and crescent loop street types not intended to network with each other.
It has been suggested that such street layouts can cause increased traffic on the collector streets. It is recognized that cul-de-sacs and looped streets inherently remove car traffic through them and restrict access to residents only. Resident traffic is naturally channelled to minor residential collectors and to arterials that provide inter-neighbourhood and inter-district connectivity.
A study, reported in compared the traffic performance in a acre 2. It concluded that the non-hierarchical, traditional layout generally shows lower peak speed and shorter, more frequent intersection delays than the hierarchical pattern.
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