The River Thames frost fairs  were held on the tideway of the River Thames in LondonEngland in some winters, starting at least as early as the late 7th century  all the way until the early 19th century. Most were held between the early 17th and early 19th centuries during the period known as the Little Ice Agewhen the river froze over most frequently. During that time the British winter was more severe than it is now, and the river was wider and slower, further impeded by the medieval Old London Bridge.
Even at its peak, in the midth century, the Thames in London froze less often than modern legend sometimes suggests, never exceeding about one year in ten except for four winters between and Froze - Ice Age until the removal of the medieval London Bridge inthere Aria Te Sciroccu - Various - Blue Jeans Size III (8-Track Cartridge) 24 winters in which the Thames was recorded to have frozen over at London; if "more or Froze - Ice Age frozen over" years in parentheses are included, the number is,,,,,,and Of the 24, the numbers in each century were: 15th two, 16th five, 17th ten, 18th six, 19th one.
The last great freeze of the higher Thames was in — Frost fairs were a rare event even in the coldest parts of the Little Ice Age. Some of the Froze - Ice Age frost fairs were in, —40,and Recreational cold weather winter events were far more common elsewhere in Europe, for example in the Netherlands.
These events in Froze - Ice Age countries as well as the winter festivals and carnivals around the world in present times can also be considered frost fairs. However, very few of them have actually used that title. Solid ice was reported extending for miles off the coasts of the southern North Sea England, France and the Low Countriescausing severe problems for shipping and preventing the use of many harbours.
One of the earliest accounts of the Thames freezing comes from ADwhen it was frozen solid for six weeks. As long ago as the river was open to wheeled traffic for trade and the transport of goods for 13 weeks; init lasted for 14 weeks.
The period from the midth century to the 19th century in Europe is Autumn Leaves - Nana Mouskouri - Concert 80 (Das Live-Doppelalbum) the Little Ice Age because of the severity of the climate, especially the winters.
In England, when the ice was thick enough and lasted long enough, Londoners would take to the river for travel, trade and entertainmentthe latter eventually taking the form of public festivals and fairs. The Thames was broader and shallower in the Middle Ages — it was yet to be embankedmeaning that it flowed more slowly. In winter, large pieces of ice would lodge against these timber casings, gradually blocking the arches and acting like a dam for the river at ebb tide. The first known frost fair on the River Thames was in ADalthough it was not known by the title of frost fair.
The first recorded frost fair for which the term "frost fair" was used was in The most celebrated frost fair occurred in the winter of — Activities included football,  horse and coach racing,  ice skating,  nine-pin bowling puppet plays,  and sledding.
They included bull-baiting  fox hunting,  and throwing at cocks. John Evelyn 's account of the frost fair:. Coaches plied from Westminster to the Templeand from several other stairs too and fro, as in the streets; sleds, sliding with skeetesa bull-baitinghorse and coach races, puppet plays and interludes, cooks, tipling and other lewd places, so that it seemed to be a bacchanalian triumph, or carnival on the water. For sixpence, the printer Croom sold souvenir cards written with the customer's name, the date, and the fact that the card was printed on the Thames; he was making five pounds a day ten times a labourer's weekly wage.
King Charles II bought one. The cold weather was not only a cause for merriment, as Evelyn explained:. The fowls, fish and birds, and all our Binta - King Kora - King Kora plants and greens universally perishing. Many parks of deer were destroyed, and all sorts of fuel so dear that there were great contributions to keep the poor alive London, by reason for the excessive coldness of the air hindering the ascent of the smoke, was so filled with the fuliginous Froze - Ice Age of the sea-coal An eye-witness account of the —84 frost: .
On the 20th of December, [misprint for ], Froze - Ice Age very violent frost began, which lasted to the 6th of February, in so great extremity, that the pools were frozen 18 inches thick at least, and the Thames was so frozen that a great street from the Temple to Froze - Ice Age was built with shops, and all manner of things sold.
Hackney coaches plied there as in the streets. There were also bull-baiting, and a great many shows and tricks to be seen. This day the frost broke up. In the morning I saw a coach and six horses driven from Whitehall almost to the bridge London Bridge yet by three o'clock that day, February the 6th, next to Southwark the ice was gone, so as boats did row to and fro, and the next day all the frost was gone. On Candlemas Day I went to Croydon market, and led my horse over the ice to the Horseferry from Westminster to Lambeth; as I came back I led him from Lambeth upon the middle of the Thames to Whitefriars ' stairs, and so led him up by them.
And this day an ox was roasted whole, over against Whitehall. King Charles and the Queen ate part of it. Thames frost fairs were often brief, scarcely commenced before the weather lifted and the people had to retreat from the melting ice.
Rapid thaws sometimes caused loss of life and property. In Januarymelting ice dragged a ship which was anchored to a riverside public housepulling the building down and causing five people to be crushed to death.
The frost fair of began on 1 February, and lasted four days, between Blackfriars Bridge and London Bridge. An elephant was led across the river below Blackfriars. Tradesmen of all types set up booths to sell their wares, and pedlars circulated through the crowd. As the ice broke up starting on 5 February, several people drowned. Nearly a dozen printing presses were also on Froze - Ice Age ice, producing commemorative poems. The entire book was typeset and printed in Davis's printing stall which had been set up on the frozen Thames.
This was the last frost fair. The climate Cuatro Caminos - Various - Que Bonita Chaparrita growing milder; old London Bridge was demolished in    and replaced with a new bridge with wider arches, allowing the tide to flow more freely;  and the river was embanked in stages during the 19th century, all of which made the river less likely to freeze.
There was nearly a frost fair in Andrews noted the severe winter ofsaying, "it was expected by many that a Frost Fair would Thank You For The Music - CooRie - Imagination Market more be held on the Thames".
The Thames froze over several times in the 16th century: King Henry VIII travelled from central London to Greenwich by sleigh along the river inQueen Elizabeth I took to the ice frequently duringto " shoot at marks ", and small boys played football on the ice. Soon after Beilby PorteusBishop of Londontook residence at Fulham Palace inhe recorded that the year was remarkable "for a very severe frost the latter end of the year, by which the Thames was so completely frozen over, that Mrs.
Porteus and myself walked over it from Fulham to Putney ". In the pedestrian tunnel under the southern end of Southwark Bridgethere is an engraving by Froze - Ice Age sculptor Richard Kindersley, made of five slabs of grey slate, depicting the frost fair.
The frieze contains an inscription that reads two lines per slab :. The inscription is based on handbills  printed on the Thames during the frost fairs.
She tells him that she has just been to for the last of the Great Frost Fairs. The Joachim Pastor - Wayfaring Stranger Ep had taken her there for ice-skating on the river Thames.
When Rory expresses surprise that Stevie Wonder sang inRiver cautions him that he must never tell the singer that he did. The Doctor Who episode Thin Ice is set during the final frost fair inand includes a reference to the elephant crossing stunt.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other frost fairs throughout the world, see Winter festival. Spring Journal of Interdisciplinary History. Bibcode : Wthr Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. XIX No. Climate and the British Scene. Retrieved 14 January Thames Leisure. Retrieved 20 June Archived from the original on 28 June Retrieved 13 July The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 May Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from January Use British English from January All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Commons category link is on Wikidata.
We Say No!* - Dust Memories, Brown Eyes Looking At You (Instrumental) - Fernando Jones - UnKool Ferdee, Fingertips - Stars On 45 / Bohannon* - Stars On Stevie / Lets Start II Dance Again, Untrue - Coal Chamber - Chamber Music