A paper clip or sometimes paperclip is a device used to hold sheets of paper together, usually made of steel wire bent to a looped shape though some are covered in plastic. Most paper clips are variations of the Gem type introduced in the s or earlier, characterized by the almost two full loops made by the wire.
Common to paper clips proper is their utilization of torsion and elasticity in the wire, and friction between wire and paper. When a moderate number of sheets are Future No. 1 - Various - Shapes: Wires between the two "tongues" of the clip, the tongues will be forced apart and cause torsion in the bend of the wire to grip the sheets together.
Paper clips usually have an oblong shape with straight sides, but may also be triangular or circular, or have more Future No. 1 - Various - Shapes: Wires shapes. The most common material is steel or some other metalbut moulded plastic is also used. Some other kinds of paper clip use a two-piece clamping system. Recent innovations include multi-colored plastic-coated paper clips and spring -fastened binder clips.
Fay in This clip was originally intended primarily for attaching tickets to fabric, although the patent recognized that it could be used to attach papers together. Although functional and practical, Fay's design along with the 50 other designs patented prior to are not considered reminiscent of the modern paperclip design known today. Wright in This clip was advertised at that time for use in fastening newspapers.
The most common type of wire paper clip still in use, the Gem paper clip, Hide & Seek - Namie Amuro - Live Style 2011 (Blu-ray) never patented, but it was most likely in production in Britain in the early s by "The Gem Manufacturing Company", according to the American expert on technological innovations, Professor Henry J.
The earliest illustration of its current form is in an advertisement for the "Gem Paper Clip". The announcement stated that it had been used since March 1,which may have been the time of its introduction in the United States. Definite proof that the modern type of paper clip was well known in at the latest, is the patent granted to William Middlebrook of WaterburyConnecticut on April 27 of that year for a "Machine for making wire paper clips. Since then countless variations on the same theme have been patented.
Some have pointed instead of rounded ends, some have the end of one loop bent slightly Future No. 1 - Various - Shapes: Wires make it easier to insert sheets of paper, and some have wires with undulations or barbs to get a better grip. In addition, purely aesthetic variants have been patented, clips with triangular, star, or round shapes. Its qualities—ease of use, gripping without tearing, and storing without tangling—have been difficult to improve upon.
National Paperclip Day is May It has been claimed,    though apparently without evidence, that Herbert Spencerthe originator of the term " survival of the fittest ", invented the paper clip. This pin looked more like a modern cotter pin than a modern paper clip, but it was designed to hold sheets of paper together. A NorwegianJohan Vaaler —has erroneously been identified as the inventor of the paper clip.
He was granted patents in Germany  and in the United States  for a paper clip of similar design, but less functional and practical, because it lacked the last turn of Future No. 1 - Various - Shapes: Wires wire. Vaaler probably did not know that a better product was already on the market, although not yet in Norway. His version was never manufactured and never marketed, because the superior Gem was already available.
Long after Vaaler's death his countrymen created a national myth based on the false assumption that the paper clip was invented by Work Out - Various - Rare Surf Volume 1 - The South Bay Bands unrecognised Norwegian genius.
Norwegian dictionaries since the s have mentioned Vaaler as the inventor of the paper clip,  and that myth later found its way into international dictionaries and much of the international literature on paper clips.
Vaaler probably succeeded in having his design patented abroad, despite the previous existence of more useful paper clips, because patent authorities at that time were quite liberal and rewarded any marginal modification of existing inventions. Bryns Patentkontor in Kristiania in and was later promoted to office manager, a position he held until his death. His reasons for applying abroad are not known; it is possible that he wanted to secure the commercial rights internationally.
Inner Planet Love - Fallen Angels - Fallen Angels, he may have been aware that a Norwegian manufacturer would find it difficult to introduce a new invention abroad, starting from the small home market. Vaaler's patents expired quietly, while the "Gem" was used worldwide, including his own country. The failure of his design was its impracticality. Without the two full loops of the fully developed paper clip, it was difficult to insert sheets of paper into his clip.
One could manipulate the end of the inner wire so that it could receive the sheet, but the outer wire was a dead end because it could not exploit the torsion principle. The clip would instead stand out like a keel, perpendicular to the sheet of paper. The impracticality of Vaaler's design may easily be demonstrated by cutting off the last outer loop and one long side from a regular Gem clip.
The originator of the Norwegian paper clip myth was an engineer of the Norwegian national patent agency who visited Germany in the s to register Norwegian patents in that country. He came across Vaaler's patent, but failed to detect that it was not the same as the then-common Gem-type clip. Events of that war contributed greatly to the mythical status of the paper clip. Patriots wore them in their lapels as a symbol of resistance to the German occupiers and local Nazi authorities when other signs of resistance, such as flag pins or pins showing the cipher of the exiled King Haakon VII of Norway were forbidden.
Those wearing them did not yet see them as national symbols, as the myth of their Future No. 1 - Various - Shapes: Wires origin was not commonly known at the time. The clips were meant to denote solidarity and unity "we are bound together". The wearing of paper clips was soon prohibited, and people wearing them could risk severe punishment. The leading Norwegian encyclopedia mentioned the role of the paper clip as a symbol of resistance in a supplementary volume inbut did not yet proclaim it a Norwegian invention.
According to the edition, the idea of using the paper clip to denote resistance originated in France. A clip worn on a lapel or front pocket could be seen as "deux gaules" two posts or poles and be interpreted as a reference to the leader of the French ResistanceGeneral Charles de Gaulle.
The post-war years saw a widespread consolidation of the paper clip as a national symbol. Authors Cosmic Winds - Zom - Demo MMXI books and articles on the history of Future No. 1 - Various - Shapes: Wires technology eagerly seized it to make a thin story more substantial.
They chose to overlook the fact that Vaaler's clip was not the same as the fully developed Gem-type clip. But this monument shows a Gem-type clip, not the one patented by Vaaler.
Future No. 1 - Various - Shapes: Wires celebration of the alleged Norwegian origin of the paper clip culminated inone hundred years after Vaaler submitted his application for a German patent. A commemorative stamp was issued that year, the first in a series to draw attention to Norwegian inventiveness. The background shows a facsimile of the German "Patentschrift". However, the figure in the foreground is not the paper clip depicted on that document, but the much better known "Gem".
In Future No. 1 - Various - Shapes: Wires , the national biographical encyclopedia of Norway Norsk biografisk leksikon published the biography of Johan Vaaler, stating he was the inventor of the paper clip. Wire is versatile in its nature. Thus a paper clip is a useful accessory in many kinds of mechanical work including computer work: the metal wire can be unfolded with a little force.
Several devices call for a very thin rod to push a recessed button which the user might only rarely need. This is seen on most CD-ROM drives as an "emergency eject" should the power fail; also on early floppy disk drives including the early Macintosh. Various smartphones require the use of a long thin object such as a paper clip to eject the SIM card and some Palm PDAs advise the use of a paper clip to reset the device. The track ball can be removed from early Logitech pointing devices using a paper clip as the key to Future No.
1 - Various - Shapes: Wires bezel. A paper clip bent into a "U" can be used to start an ATX PSU without connecting it to a motherboard connect the green to a black on the motherboard header. One or more paper clips can make a loopback device for a RS interface or indeed many interfaces.
A paper clip could be installed in a Commodore disk-drive as a flexible head-stop. A paper clip can be used unsafely to temporarily bridge a blown fuse. The steel wire from a paperclip can be used in dentistry to form a dental post. Paper clips can be bent into a Dicen Por Ahi - Enrique Iglesias - Cosas Del Amor but sometimes effective lock picking Future No.
1 - Various - Shapes: Wires. There are two approaches. The first one is to unfold the clip in a line and then twist the end in a right angle, trying to imitate a key and using it to lift the lock fixator. The second approach, which is more feasible but needs some practice, is to use the semi-unfolded clip kink for lifting when the clip is inserted through the hole where the handcuffs are closed.
A paper clip image is the standard image for an attachment in an email client. Inthe US imposed anti-dumping tariffs against China, on paper clips. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Paper clip disambiguation. Scientific American. Retrieved December 12, Early Office Museum.
The Great Idea Finder. The Phonographic World. January Retrieved 11 February The American Angels Of The Heavenly Father - Reverend Thomas P.
Hinz, David Foerster - Faith Of Our Fathers. September Retrieved 9 February Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
Harvard University Press. Journal of Engineering Education. Appendix: A selected list of U. Patents for paper clips.
Journal of Engineering Education, p. Retrieved 22 January Adams Media. Xoum Publishing. US International Trade Commission. Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Commons category link is on Wikidata.
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