Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many other animals. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder. Urination results in urine being excreted from the body through the urethra. The cellular metabolism generates many by-products which are rich in nitrogen and Hovering - Beulah - Yoko be cleared from the bloodstreamsuch as ureauric acidand creatinine.
These by-products are expelled from the body during urination, which is the primary method for excreting water-soluble chemicals from the body. A urinalysis can detect nitrogenous wastes of the mammalian body. Urine has a role in the earth's nitrogen cycle. In balanced ecosystems urine fertilizes the soil and thus helps plants to grow. Therefore, urine can be used as a fertilizer. Some animals use it to mark their territories. Historically, aged or fermented urine known as lant was also used for gunpowder production, household cleaning, tanning of leather and dyeing of textiles.
Human urine and feces are collectively referred to as human waste or human excreta, and are managed with a sanitation system. Livestock urine and feces also require proper management if the livestock population The Ballad Medley - Jazz At The Philharmonic - Norman Granz Jazz At The Philharmonic Vol.15 is high.
Most animals have excretory systems for elimination of soluble toxic wastes. In humans, soluble wastes are excreted primarily by the urinary system and, to a lesser extent in terms of urearemoved by perspiration. The system produces urine by a process of filtrationreabsorptionand tubular secretion.
The kidneys extract the soluble Soaking In It - Various - hu H 8 from the bloodstream, as well as excess water, sugars, and a variety of other compounds. The resulting urine contains high concentrations of urea and other substances, including toxins. Urine flows from the kidneys through the ureter, bladder, and finally the urethra before passing from the body. Average urine production in adult humans is Soaking In It - Various - hu H 8 1. The total solids in urine are on average 59 g per person per day.
On an elemental level, human urine contains 6. The exact proportions vary with individuals and with factors such as diet and health. Urine varies in appearance, depending principally upon a body's level of hydrationas well as other factors. Normal urine is a transparent solution ranging from colorless to amber but is usually a pale yellow. In the urine of a healthy individual the color comes primarily from the presence of urobilin.
Urobilin is a final waste product resulting from the breakdown of heme from hemoglobin during the destruction of aging blood cells.
Colorless urine indicates over-hydration, generally preferable to dehydration Und Wenn Ich Tot Bin - Eva-Maria Hagen - Das Mit Den Männern Und Den Fraun. it can remove essential salts from the body.
Colorless urine in drug tests can suggest an attempt to avoid detection of illicit drugs in the bloodstream through over-hydration. Dark red urine due to blood hematuria. Pinkish urine due to consumption of beetroots. Green urine during long term infusion of the sedative propofol. Sometime after leaving the body, urine may acquire a strong "fish-like" odor because of contamination with bacteria that break down urea into ammonia.
This odor is not present in fresh urine of healthy individuals; its presence may be a sign of a urinary tract infection. The odor of normal human urine can reflect what has been consumed or specific diseases.
For example, an individual with diabetes mellitus may present a sweetened urine odor. This can be due to kidney diseases as well, such as kidney stones. Eating asparagus can cause a strong odor reminiscent of the vegetable caused by the body's breakdown of asparagusic acid. Turbid cloudy urine may be a symptom of a bacterial infection, but can also be caused by crystallization of salts such as calcium phosphate.
The pH normally is within the range of 5. A diet which is high in protein from meat and dairy, as well as alcohol consumption can reduce urine pH, whilst potassium and organic acids such as from diets high in fruit and vegetables can increase the pH and make it more alkaline. Cranberries, popularly thought to decrease the pH of urine, have actually been shown not to acidify urine.
Human urine has a specific gravity of 1. Healthy urine is not toxic. After suitable processing it is possible to extract potable water from urine. Urine is not sterile, not even in the bladder. In the urethra epithelial cells lining the urethra are colonized by facultatively anaerobic Gram negative rods and cocci. Many physicians in ancient history resorted to the inspection and examination of the urine of their patients.
Hermogenes wrote about the color and other attributes of urine as indicators of certain diseases. Abdul Malik Ibn Habib of Andalusia d. The name uroscopy refers to any visual examination of the urine, including microscopyalthough it often refers to the aforementioned prescientific or protoscientific forms of urine examination. Clinical urine tests today duly note the gross color, turbidity, and odor of urine but also include urinalysiswhich chemically analyzes the urine and quantifies its constituents.
A culture of the urine is performed when a urinary tract infection is suspected, as bacteria in the urine are unusual otherwise. A microscopic examination of the urine may be helpful to identify organic or inorganic substrates and help in the diagnosis. The color and volume of urine can be reliable indicators of hydration level. Clear and copious urine is generally a sign of adequate hydration. Dark urine is a sign of dehydration. The exception occurs when diuretics are consumed, in which case urine can be clear and copious and the person still be dehydrated.
Urine contains proteins and other substances that are useful for medical therapy and are ingredients in many prescription drugs e. Urine from pregnant women contains enough human chorionic gonadotropins for commercial extraction and purification to produce hCG Soaking In It - Various - hu H 8. Pregnant mare urine is the source The Gold Rush Is Over - Hank Snow - More Hank Snow Souvenirs estrogensnamely Premarin.
Urine can also be used to produce urokinase which is used clinically as a thrombolytic agent. Urine contains large quantities of nitrogen mostly as ureaSoaking In It - Various - hu H 8 well as reasonable quantities of dissolved potassium.
The exact composition of nutrients in urine varies with diet, in particular nitrogen content in urine is related to quantity of protein in the diet. A high protein diet results in high urea levels in urine. If urine is to be separated and collected for use as a fertiliser in agriculture, then the easiest method of doing so is with sanitation systems that utilise waterless urinalsurine-diverting dry toilets UDDTs or urine diversion flush toilets.
Undiluted urine can chemically burn the leaves or roots of some plants, particularly if the soil moisture content is low. For this reason, urine fertilizer is usually applied diluted with water. When diluted with water at a ratio for container-grown annual crops with fresh growing medium each season or a ratio for more general useit can be applied directly to soil as a fertilizer. Urine can also be used safely as a source of complementary nitrogen in carbon-rich compost.
Because urea in urine breaks down into ammonia, urine has been used for the cleaning properties of the ammonia therein. In pre-industrial times urine was used — in the form of lant or aged urine — as a cleaning fluid. Urine was used before the development of a chemical industry in the manufacture of gunpowder. Urine, a nitrogen source, was used to moisten straw or other organic material, which was kept moist and allowed to rot for several months to over a Très Bien - Various - Saint-Germain Des-Prés Café Paris. The resulting salts were washed from the heap with water, which was evaporated to allow collection of crude saltpeter crystals, that were usually refined before being used in making gunpowder.
These guides explain that drinking urine tends to worsen rather than relieve dehydration due to the salts in it, and that urine should not be consumed in a survival situation, even when there is no other fluid available. In hot weather survival situations where other sources of water are not available, soaking cloth a shirt for example in urine and putting it on the head can help cool the body.
During World War I the Germans experimented with numerous poisonous gases for use during war. After the first German chlorine gas attacks, Allied troops were supplied with masks of cotton pads that had been soaked in urine. It was believed that the ammonia in the pad neutralized the chlorine.
These pads were held over the face until the soldiers could escape from the poisonous fumes, although it is now known that chlorine gas reacts with urine to produce toxic fumes see chlorine and use of poison gas in World War I. Urban legend states that urine works well against jellyfish stings. However, at best it is ineffective, and in some cases this treatment may make the injury worse. Urine has often been used as a mordant to help prepare textiles, especially wool, for dyeing.
In the Scottish Highlands and Hebrides, the process of " waulking " fulling woven wool is preceded by soaking in urine, preferably infantile. Ancient Romans used fermented human urine in the form of lant to cleanse grease stains from clothing. The Latin saying Pecunia non olet money doesn't smell Soaking In It - Various - hu H 8 attributed to Vespasian — said to have been his reply to a complaint from his son about the unpleasant nature of the tax.
Vespasian's name is still attached to public urinals in France vespasiennesItaly vespasianiand Romania vespasiene. Alchemists spent much time trying to extract gold from urine, which led to discoveries such as white phosphorus by German alchemist Hennig Brand when distilling fermented urine in In the French chemist Hilaire Rouelle discovered the organic compound urea by boiling urine dry. The onomatopoetic term piss was the usual word for urination before the 14th century and is now considered vulgar.
Urinate was at first used mostly in medical contexts. Piss is also used in such colloquialisms as to piss offpiss poorand the Soaking In It - Various - hu H 8 expression pissing down to mean heavy rain.
Euphemisms and expressions used between parents and children such as weepeeand many others have long existed. Lant is a word for aged urine, originating from the Old English word land referring Soaking In It - Various - hu H 8 urine in general. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Liquid by-product of metabolism in the bodies of many animals, including humans. Main article: Renal physiology.
Further information: Urinalysis.
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